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Know your soils #8: The most important thing you can do for your soil

Know your soils #8: The most important thing you can do for your soil 1600 900 Soilmentor

Welcome to the eighth instalment of our Know your Soils series sharing practical tips for monitoring the soil health on your land. Keep an eye out for our bitesize videos and fact sheets on simple tests you can do yourself on farm.

“If you can’t measure it, you can’t improve it.


Try 3 easy soil tests to understand your soil health

After almost a year of supporting farmers with soil testing, the Soilmentor team share insights on empowering farmers to monitor and build soil health for themselves.

It’s clear that we need to build more resilient soils, both for the future of our farms and for the long-term health of the land. Satellite images of muddy waters spilling out of brown rivers after heavy rainfall are hair-raising. Soil health advisors are certain this scenario is avoidable, it’s all down to how land is managed.

If this is the case then building soil health should be one of the top priorities on every farm, but how do farmers do this? It starts with soil testing and monitoring, going out into the fields and seeing for yourself how your soil is doing.

Monitoring how your land is changing with different management practices and what works to build healthy soils and crops is the core of successful farming. This is why dedicating just one day to do a few simple soil tests on your land is the most important thing you can do for your soil this year.

Spring and Autumn are the best times to do soil tests.
Here’s the 3 most important AND EASY tests you can do now using equipment already on your farm.

Do the Soil Test Challenge!

 

1. Slake Test (Wet Aggregate Stability)

The Slake test allows you to really see how well your soil structure holds up in water. It is also an indicator of biological activity. Well structured soil is composed of aggregates, so in the slake test you put a few small pieces of soil in a sieve, submerge them in water and then shake them around quite vigorously. If the small pieces survive without breaking down at all they are true aggregates. The water around them will also remain totally clear. So after heavy rainfall, your soil would retain its structure and even keep little droplets of water in the nooks and crannies of the irregularly shaped aggregates. For non-aggregates there is considerable break down of the pieces and the water can become murky. This implies that the pieces of soil are only held together because of compaction, and as soon as there is a heavy rainfall the soil structure just falls apart and then what’s left re-settles and compacts further – no air gaps anywhere.

You score the breakdown on a scale of zero to eight, eight indicates a soil full of microbes and made up almost exclusively of aggregates. You can then easily record your observations and results using the Soilmentor app – including notes and photos all automatically assigned to the field you are in. Here is a step-by-step guide of how to the test and the simple equipment you need.

We are working with Soil Health Expert Jenni Dungait and have adopted the method she used in her research with farmers on multiple farms in Cornwall and Cotswolds regions. An additional benefit of this test was highlighted by Jenni’s research (soon to be published) which shows that the slake test is an excellent proxy for Soil Organic Carbon.

 

2. Earthworm count

All growers inherently understand the value of earthworms as we see them physically move nutrients around the soil profile. Earthworms are one of the larger organisms in the soil food web, so lots of earthworms is a good indicator of plenty of life in your soil. In the UK, an average of 15-20 worms in a 20x20cm soil pit is considered good. Taking a spade, digging a pit and counting earthworms is a very easy and valuable test and if you are using the app, it will automatically record which field the count was in and give you an average for each field at the end of the day. It’s also easy to look back and compare when you do the count again next year. Here is a step-by-step guide of how to do the test and the basic equipment you need.

There is a more detailed earthworm count you can do based on the work of soil scientist Jackie Stroud at Rothamsted. There are three main types of earthworm: the litter-feeders which break down organic matter on the surface of the soil; the top-soil worms who work on soil aggregation and nutrient mobilisation; and then the deep-burrowers that keep water flowing from the soil surface to deep pools below, as well as increasing aeration and root development. Jackie’s research shows that if you identify numbers of each type of worm, it can tell you what the worms are working on and uncover any changes you might need to make in your soil management to encourage all types – ideally you want to have all three types of worm working in harmony. Take Jackie’s Worm ID Quiz, which is a brilliant way to learn how to identify types of worm for yourself. If you are in the UK, you can also choose to be part of her #30minworms nationwide worm survey, building up a picture of the worm situation in fields all over the country. You can find out more about it here, or we can also send her your results from the app, at your request.

 

3. Infiltration rate

The Infiltration rate test clearly shows how ready your soil is to soak up water when it comes, and indicates the ability of your soil to hold water when it’s dry for long periods. Imagine if every farmer and grower around the land had a clear idea of the average infiltration rate in each of their fields. We would definitely be better equipped to prevent those muddy rivers and top-soil losses. To do this test we use a 150mm diameter pipe and hammer the pipe 75mm into the ground (We have pre-marked this on the side). Then we pour in 444ml of water and time how long it takes the water to infiltrate. If you use the app, it will automatically tell you the average infiltration rate for each field, each year, so you can easily compare between your fields as well as from year to year. Here is a step-by-step guide and list of the basic equipment you need to do this test.

Originally we used a much smaller diameter baked bean tin to do the infiltration tests but we were finding it took over 20 minutes for the water to infiltrate which made it impractical to do in the field. One thought was forcing such a small diameter cylinder into the ground was causing artificial compaction in itself, which is why we have moved to a larger diameter cylinder. We have found this size to be much more reasonable in terms of the amount of time it takes, our aim is that this method that takes a maximum of five minutes in most soils.

 

4. Bonus! Photo Diary

We are going to sneak in a 4th here because it’s not really a ‘test’. Farmers have told us that a photo diary of each field above and below ground is very helpful alongside the soil tests. You can see from the example on Fidelity’s farm below what this can look like in the Soilmentor app. And thankfully the app automatically adds a date and time to each photo and assigns it to the field you are in, plus you can add notes, so it’s all organised for you automatically when you get back home. No more scrolling through photos endlessly trying to find the right one or what exactly it was your were photographing!

The Soilmentor app makes it easy to record these observations in the field as you go, and then turn those observations into graphs and insights. Just a few taps and you have everything recorded, alongside photos showing what you saw both above and below ground. Essentially you can build up a visual diary for each field combined with numerical results from the tests. All those results are easily searchable (no more shuffling through piles of papers to try and find those scribbled notes) and quickly show how your soil health is changing over time. What do you reckon? Are you on board? What’s stopping you? If you have any questions at all just email us! We are here to help.

We believe that if we all take this on the UK can be world-leaders in healthy soils and clean waterways!

 


See our free online soils guide for soil tests you can do at home and find out how our app Soilmentor helps you record & learn how your soil is changing.

Know your Soils #7: The Respiration Test

Know your Soils #7: The Respiration Test 1358 772 Soilmentor

Welcome to the seventh instalment of our Know your Soils series sharing practical tips for monitoring the soil health on your land. Keep an eye out for our bitesize videos and fact sheets on simple tests you can do yourself on farm.

“If you can’t measure it, you can’t improve it.


How much biological activity is there in your soil?

Based on an AHDB GREATsoils video created by Soil Association and Earthcare Technical

The soil respiration test is a way to measure how much biological activity is occurring in your soil. When soil respires carbon dioxide is released by microbes, plant roots and soil fauna.

Decomposition of organic matter by microbes in the soil converts organic nutrients such as phosphorus, nitrogen, and sulfur into inorganic nutrients, which plants are able to absorb. This process is also known as carbon mineralisation, feeding the plants, and the soil.

Soil respiration is indicative of the soil’s ability to support living roots and plant growth. Low respiration rates show that there is a lack of soil organic matter and microbial activity in the soil. This could be down to the soil temperature, moisture, aeration or available Nitrogen.

Solvita has created a special field CO2 probe making it easy to test how much carbon dioxide is being released by the soil. It will give you a general idea of your soil’s natural metabolism and which farm management practises are affecting your biological activity.

In this GREATsoils video, find out how to do the test using the probe:

Soil samples need to be fresh from the field and slightly moist for this test — ideally the field will not have not been rained on for two days. It is interesting to sample fields of different uses such as pasture, arable and leys to see how the soil respiration differs.

Equipment:

For those in the UK can order kits from Solvita in the U.S. directly – please note prices are subject to change. Solvita field CO2 probes, gas tight jars and the CO2 colour chart are included in this set of 6 CO2 probes & jars for $99 (£75). You can get an idea of what the colour chart looks like in Solvita’s video. To stock up on probes you can buy 25 x field CO2 probes for $493 including shipping (£376) which is about $20 (£15) per test. The more you order the cheaper it gets: 50 is $714 (£544), so around $15 (£11) per test.

If you’re based in the U.S. you can link up with Will Brinton at Woodsend Labs to obtain advice and the Solvita equipment you need for this test.

If you’re based in the U.K. you can also get an in-depth assessment of your soil which includes the soil respiration test from NRM.

If you’re interested in trying this test at home why not club together with other farmers who would like to investigate their soil respiration.

Resources


See our free online soils guide for soil tests you can do at home and find out how our app Soilmentor helps you record & learn how your soil is changing.

Know your Soils #6: Soil Health Reading List

Know your Soils #6: Soil Health Reading List 551 406 Soilmentor

Welcome to the sixth instalment of our Know your Soils series sharing practical tips for monitoring the soil health on your land. Keep an eye out for our bitesize videos and fact sheets on simple tests you can do yourself on farm.

“If you can’t measure it, you can’t improve it.


The best books for learning about soil health

Book recommendations and where to buy them from a fantastic lineup of soil health experts and enthusiasts!

As the Autumn evenings begin to draw in why not stock up on a few of these soil health books to read on a cosy evening or weekend by the fire. In no particular order…

 

A Soil Owner’s Manual: How to Restore and Maintain Soil Health – Jon Stika

A favourite of Gabe Brown, this book will change the way you think about and manage soil. Learn how to bring your soil back to life!

Recommended by Niels Corfield, Soil Health Expert & Advisor

 

The Soil and Water Balance – Game & Wildlife Conservation Trust

Jump into the latest soil and water research with this Q & A style book, bringing together insights from the Allerton Project and numerous scientific papers.

Recommended by Jackie Stroud, Soil Scientist at Rothamsted Research & ‘The Worm Lady’

 

Teaming with Microbes: an organic gardener’s guide to the soil – Wayne Lewis & Jeff Lowenfels

Dig into the amazing underworld of microbes in your soil, what they eat, and how they nurture plants to make them strong and healthy.

Recommended by Hannah Steenbergen, 42 Acres, Somerset

 

Dirt – The Ecstatic Skin of the Earth – William Bryant Logan

This inspirational book is packed with interesting facts about ‘dirt’ and takes a philosophical view, looking at the bigger picture.

Recommended by Elizabeth Stockdale, Head of Farming Systems Research at NIAB

 

Soil Ecology – Ken Killham

One of the best soil scientists of his generation gives an excellent overview of how soil works physically, chemically and ecologically, a page turner based on hard core science!

Recommended by Elizabeth Stockdale, Head of Farming Systems Research at NIAB

 

Growing a Revolution – David Montgomery

Tour the world meeting innovative farmers who are ditching their ploughs, mulching cover crops and trying unique crop rotations. A blend of ancient wisdom and modern science!

Recommended by Alex Heffron, a farmer from Pembrokeshire, Wales

 

The Farm as Ecosystem – Jerry Brunetti

You’ll probably want to have your highlighter with you when you read this fascinating book taking a holistic perspective to farming and offering real-world advice.

Recommended by Alex Heffron, a farmer from Pembrokeshire, Wales

 

Fertility Farming – Newman Turner

A practical guide for farmers who want to work with nature to build fertile soil, without disruption of the natural order.

Recommended by Alex Heffron, a farmer from Pembrokeshire, Wales

 

Soil Signals & Grassland Signals – Luppo Diepenbrock

Good introduction to soils as part of a total farm management sustainable system.

Recommended by Jenni Dungait, Soil Health Expert & Professor of Soil Biogeochemistry

 

Letters to a young farmer – Stone Barns Center for Food & Agriculture

Although not specifically focussed on soil health, this is one of our favourites at Soilmentor HQ. Packed with inspiration and well worth a read!

Recommended by Abby, Annie & Inti, Soilmentor

 

UPDATE – more recommendations from Twitter!

Many thanks to those who emailed or tweeted us recommendations for these updates:
Juuso Joona (@Maan_viljelija)
Diana Donlon (@Soil_Centric)
Angus Hogg (@HoggAngus)
@JaneKALuk
Andrew Heiss (@Heissaj)
Bruce Ball
Wendy Tobitt 

Let us know what you think of these books and if you have anything to add!

 


See our free online soils guide for soil tests you can do at home and find out how our app Soilmentor helps you record & learn how your soil is changing.

Know Your Soils #4: How to capture carbon in your soil

Know Your Soils #4: How to capture carbon in your soil 659 353 Soilmentor

Welcome to the fourth instalment of our Know your Soils series sharing practical tips for monitoring the soil health on your land.  Keep an eye out for our bitesize videos and fact sheets on simple tests you can do yourself on farm.

“If you can’t measure it, you can’t improve it.


“If you want to capture carbon, you have to think like carbon!”

A special short episode of Farmerama Radio, a podcast sharing the voices of smaller scale farmers

Charles Schembre is a Soil Conservationist at the Napa County Resource Conservation District, working primarily in Vineyard Agriculture. He has received grant funding to set up his carbon farm plan project from California’s Healthy Soils Program, a scheme to support farmers with increasing soil health, sequestering carbon and improving water retention.

Sequestering or increasing soil organic carbon is the process of plants absorbing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, and transforming it into carbon in the soil through photosynthesis. This is beneficial for reducing greenhouse gases, in addition to increasing soil fertility.

Charles is working with farms and vineyards to create holistic ‘Carbon Farm Plans’, which assist them to increase their agricultural resilience and productivity, and mitigate the impact of our rapidly changing climate with sustainable farm management practises.

In this short episode of Farmerama, he explains how ‘Carbon Farming’ works, what a carbon farm plan is and how you can monitor this on your farm:

You can see an example carbon farm plan from the USDA Napa County vineyard here.

Carbon sequestration is a win-win, right?
Yes, however, making a plan and monitoring it’s success is the challenge. The idea for the plan is to put all potential options in, and then chip away to find what’s realistic. In terms of soil health there are several different tactics he suggests you can use to increase carbon in your soil and monitor how they are working:

  • No-till: This is the practise of not ploughing, leaving soil undisturbed, protecting against soil erosion and allowing microbes, fungi and worms to do their great work building soil health. This is one of the easiest practises to implement as it doesn’t involve much financial commitment, so a lot of the farms using carbon farm plans try it first.
  • Compost: Adding compost to the soil builds up it’s soil organic matter content. The benefits of this practise are much longer term. Charles recommends adding large compost applications to soil perhaps every 5 or even 10 years.
  • Ground cover: The more ground is covered in plants, the better. If you want to capture carbon, you need leafy green plants, absorbing CO2 from the atmosphere and putting it into the ground. So those, ‘untidy areas’ of the farm, rife with riotous plants and weeds, might actually be doing your soil a favour. Think twice about topping them next time!

Soil monitoring
To understand how much carbon sequestration you are achieving Charles advises you start monitoring these three soil health indicators (identified by Soil Health Institute):

  • Wet aggregate stability (Slake test): this is the soil’s ability to withstand disintegration from water erosion. You can do the slake test at home! (our soil health expert Jenni Dungait will tell us more about this later in the series)
  • Bulk Density: this is the unit of dry soil & air per unit of bulk volume. It changes depending on different land management practises. The test is best done in a lab, and involves drying a soil sample in an oven at 105 degrees for 18-24 hours.
  • Soil Organic Carbon: this is a part of soil organic matter which is traditionally measured with the Loss-on-ignition test (also best done in a lab). However recent research by Soil Health Expert Jenni Dungait has shown that the wet aggregate stability test (or slake test) is a proxy for Soil Organic Carbon when following this protocol.

There has already been a proven reduction in greenhouse gases on several of the farms using carbon farm plans. Do you think you can make your own carbon farm plan? Check out Charles’ Carbon Farm Plan for their demo vineyard, Huichica Creek.


See our free online soils guide for soil tests you can do at home and find out how our app Soilmentor helps you record & learn how your soil is changing.

Making your soil rain-ready :  Skywatchers it’s time to look down

Making your soil rain-ready :  Skywatchers it’s time to look down 800 533 Soilmentor

This is a guest post by Niels Corfield, soil health, agroforestry and whole farm planning advisor, researcher and advocate.

For graziers and farmers

It’s been a “funny old year” from the wet, water-logged winter-spring to the now, dry spring-summer.
Since we’re in a prolonged dry spell people are watching the sky and “praying” for rain (or at least hoping), I wanted to share some relevant gleanings from visual assessments of soil structure and how they pertain to soil moisture, in these most “drying times”.

To conclude the piece I will attempt to show how these observations could be brought-to-bear on management decisions now, and in the future. With a view to ensuring your soils are “ready for the rain”.

Below are some images of soils under different management. When looking at these images I want you to ask yourself: What can we see here? What is the appearance (the structure of the soil) telling us?

Observation

The first and perhaps most important point to make, is, to make a clear distinction between observations and conclusions (or to cited causes). Not that we shouldn’t draw conclusions, simply that there may be multiple reasons for an observed phenomena.

But the first step to understanding a given situation is observation.

 

Above is an image of a soil under permanent pasture in mid winter.

Q: What do we see in this picture, in terms of the visual appearance of the soil structure?
A: a tale of two (very distinct) layers

So, what, might we say, is the most important difference in the state of these two layers?
1. the upper layer appears darker — it is wet (or well hydrated), and;
2. the lower layer has a lighter appearance — is dry.

 

Soil Structure

If we look a little more closely are there any other aspects of the appearance we can identify?
Well, structure is one of the macro features of soil we can look-to to judge it’s condition and it’s state of “health”.

The two broad categories of soil structure are: aggregated and consolidated.

Consolidated soil is the product of physical bonding, typically, having a uniform and homogenous structure, with angular or blocky sections. An aggregated soil is very different, it’s structure is a result of a biological activity — the secretion of sticky substances — that glue the separate soil particles (sand, silt or clay) into little globs, that have a rounded appearance (they look like mini worm castings). See below for an example of an aggregated soil.

 

A Closer Look

By getting right-in there we should be able to spot relevant, features or characteristics, not otherwise visible. Let’s look at these two layers separately, and see how they can be characterised in terms of their structure.

 

Upper Layer

The upper layer (or turf layer as we might call it) has a more aggregated structure, we can see this because the particles sizes vary-, they are generally small, have a “crumb”-like structure, and are held apart from one another, in a disordered kind of arrangement. Overall, the structure is: non-uniform, irregular and generally open in nature (this can be seen by the large number of small shadows visible in the image).
This is also where the majority of the roots are concentrated. They are densely distributed and are mostly coated with soil, with some showing signs of “rhizosheaths”.
These are all signs of biological activity (or the bi-products of microbial activity).

 

Lower Layer

The section of soil below the turf layer has a quite different appearance. Rather than shadows everywhere from all the nooks and crannies created by the many discrete soil particles, what can be seen is a fairly solid mass, with distinct faces, broken into large angular sections. Between- and within these sections there are cracks, clearly visible.
Generally, where it does break breakdown into smaller fragments, these are still angular and blocky in nature, rather than rounded.
There are roots present throughout this layer, however they are fairly widely distributed and mostly white in colour — indicating they are “clean” and free of soil. Not a good sign as it means the roots aren’t building lots of aggregates.
These visual cues are all indicative of a physical structure, one where the soil particles are bonded in crystal lattice: highly ordered, tightly packed and densely arranged, having a low porosity.

 

Discussion

We can see clear a distinction between these two different soil strata or layers. But what is the significance of these observations?

Hydration

The land has had ample rain so why isn’t the whole of the soil profile hydrated.
If it were water loss due to evaporation (somewhat unlikely in winter) surely it would be the upper layer that would be dry, either through direct losses or through transpiration from the majority of the roots.

If it were lack of precipitation we should see a proportion of the lower lever showing signs of hydration, yet there is a distinct boundary, exactly where the soil structure changes.

What seems most likely here is that the rain that has fallen on to this soil has been unable to percolate into these lower depths, basically ending up moving laterally, and leaving the land (taking some goodness with it).

Why is this significant? Why should we care?

Well we can can say, that, amongst other things, soil is a water store (a reservoir) that holds water from rains (or snow melt) from which plants can draw-on in dry periods.

Generally, we can say that better aggregation allows more water to enter the soil profile and holds more of that for later in the year. This is shown, in this example, because the upper layer of this soil is well hydrated, and is also well aggregated. As opposed to the bottom which is dry, and has a consolidated structure. We can broadly say that this layer and below will hold (and therefore offer) little water to plants come the growing season.

In a drought this maybe the difference of several weeks of additional growth.

We can also broadly say that a better hydrated soil will have more active microbial populations, and thus more microbial activity, meaning more nutrient release, and therefore: healthier-, more nutritious grass plants. Which means healthier-, better nourished animals, with better weight-gain, higher conception rates and improved meat quality.
Allround beneficial.

 

Response

So how are we to respond to these observations? What practices or measures can we put in place to address these issues? What might our objectives be, based on what we can see? Where would we want to end up, over what period?

We can say that these observations are generally associated with poor pasture condition. Either through historic management practices or through some issue associated with cultivation, back in the day.

There is no one right response. Every farm is different and you have to work with the constraints you have. However, whatever response you do try, it is important to monitor as you go so you can see if it’s working.

Sampling

That said, it’s important to note that the image referred to here, is just one sample and as such may not be representative of the whole field.

To get a more accurate picture of the soil condition in a field as a whole, a number of samples should be taken. Or an attempt should be made to return to the same spot each time samples are taken.

Either way, the important point is that samples are representative.

This soil sample has been selected for this piece because it illustrates a point clearly.

Monitoring

With this in mind, we can use the baseline we have from the samples we take, record a measure of topsoil depth typically the upper layer, with more aggregated structure (potentially the turf layer) and look to increase that depth year-on-year. Perhaps using a yearly, or twice-yearly assessment – ideally taken from the same- or close to the same location in that field. The VESS test will also be appropriate for referencing progress/improvements.
Another, more immediate method for measuring success would be forage volume, either with a plate meter or a sward stick. With increasing totals and faster growth rates being valued.
Finally, perhaps the most direct method for assessing water penetration into soils, is the water infiltration rate test. Which is kind of a no-brainer, though that said, it’s really a measure of aggregation — since as aggregation improves, so does infiltration. It couldn’t be more appropriate for this drought July 2018.

 

Soil Health Principles

Once you’ve decided how you will measure success, the next step is to identify interventions/management practices that can help you achieve your objectives.
These may well be novel practices or represent a change in management, as such there’s some consideration to be made when selecting a specific option. So, what’s useful is to have a criteria against which to make your selection.

One tool for making selections (or at least shortlisting) is the soil health principles (see below). Basically, practices that match more of the soil health principles should be favoured (where practical).

  • Living Root — for long as possible, as often as possible
  • Covered Soil — with residues or living plants (leaves)
  • Minimise Disturbance — tillage/cultivation
  • Diversity — in your rotations or mixes
  • Feed Soils — organisms need energy (carbon) to live and be active
  • Incorporate Animals — ideally using adaptive/planned grazing techniques
  • Minimise Use of Chemicals/Synthetics — undoes your good work above

In almost all cases, if improving soil health is your aim, then the main objective is to increase microbial activity, either by feeding the organisms directly or by inducing the grass plants to grow larger and more rapidly (which has the knock-on effect of feeding soil biology also, through exudates).
In general we’re looking to increase residues and residuals, increase trampling and shifting to a lower (or ultra-low) utilisation rate — potentially 10–20%, with 30% being an upper range. Frequent moves and high stock density will facilitate these goals.

 

Suggested Practices

Some techniques and frameworks for improving soil health in pasture.
All these practices are routes to increased soil aggregation. And as such their success can be evidenced by this.

Holistic Planned Grazing (HPG)

A tool to deal with the complexity and variables associated with managing grazing systems, and achieve higher goals, like high animal performance, improved pasture growth and better soil.
As they say “proper planning and preparation, prevents….” In this case, the planning means you are generally better prepared for unforeseen circumstances. So when a drought hits- or an extended wet period you should be better able to react and still achieve those goals.
HMG Grazing Charts are downloadable here. Though you may want some support with getting started.
Otherwise there’s a new app PastureMap which takes much of the work out of the process, especially the recording, and on the fly monitoring. As well as this, the support staff are all planned grazers, so they can provide help with the app and the grazing planning.

 

Mob Grazing

Grazing technique that can help to get the most out of your pastures in any given year, especially in drought and when grazing “into the shoulders”. Extend the season and improve the bottom line. Especially effective when applied in a holistic planned grazing framework.
High stock densities (and frequent moves) reduces over utilisation of grasses through selective grazing and ensures even
Works best with smaller animals, with larger rumen to frame size ratio — animals bred to perform well on “low quality”, all-grass diets (450–600kg liveweight).
After a grazing event, close attention should be paid to: trampling, litter/bare soil and residuals, especially when beginning in this practice. Percentage bare soil can be recorded using a quadrat, explained here.
In drought, trampled residues keep soil moist, and protect open areas in sward from heat, and loss of structure, potentially facilitating germination of shed seed. Low utilisation rates facilitate rapid regrowth of grass plants by leaving plenty of “solar panels” for photosynthesis.

 

Mob grazing system in drought (6th July 2018) // Trampled residues — moist soil


The pics above show some of the results of high stock density grazing. Evidence of trampling and high residuals is clear. With particular interest being from the moisture retained on the soil surface below litter.
Not visible in this image the fact that many areas of the pasture have been heavily utilised (perhaps 60% or more) and some areas are untouched (as well as being untrampled).
Residuals and trampling could be be increased, while at the same time reducing over utilisation of favoured grasses, by increasing the stock density further, say moving twice per day. In these most drying of times. This should have the effect of improving the speed of regrowth (keeping the pasture growing in this dry weather) while improving the sward composition (by reducing selective grazing of favoured plants).

Bale Grazing

This technique is typically carried-out in the dormant season, and can be combined with out-wintering.
It’s a good way to keep the manure and urine going on to the field (with reduced need for mucking-out or housing) while adding residues to the field -when forage is insufficient.
Drought situations also present similar conditions. In this case, where grass is running low (or when you want to just leave more residuals) you can put out stored feed. This will have the effect of trampling the residual hay into the soil, which feeds soil organisms and helps to cover soil, in patchy pastures.

Post bale grazing (10th Dec 2017) — Residues incorporated at soil surface (Jun 2018)


Care should be taken to ration the bales offered, to roll out bales (ensuring an even covering — preventing clumpy dense patches that may be slow to breakdown) and to move animals across fodders by: mob grazing, rotational grazing (higher stock densities mean higher residuals).

These are just two possible techniques that have a proven track record in improving soil health, while supporting high numbers of stock. Increasing sward diversity, either with perennial pasture species or annual forages is another route. See examples presented below:

All these techniques can help to improve soil health and with it pasture health, which in drought translates to longer growth into the dry period and in mature systems, continued growth through the “dry season”.
While also facilitating longer out-wintering through better soil structure, that resists poaching, and providing additional available forage in the dormant season.

 

Convince Yourself: On-Farm Trials

These techniques are all novel, have a degree of nuance to them and of course can be applied alongside existing practice or together.
So, when implementing them there’s a real risk of disruption to the existing operation, and a need to master- or at least road-test these techniques.
For this reason, a period of experimentation is highly indicated.

The most appropriate vehicle for testing novel techniques is on-farm trials.

This could take the form of a “split field” trial – where one half of one field is managed using a new technique and the other half is managed as normal. This is monitored, using a set of tests that can be carried-out across both areas and the results compared. See below for examples.

Some knowledge of variability in soil types is useful. Wherever possible we’re trying to remove variables. So if one part of a field is a different soil type, attempt to split the field through or across that section. So as to have both soil types represented in both treatments.

Side-by-side experiments give the most immediate feedback.

This might start with a single field, perhaps one that is close to the yard – for easy access and monitoring, one that is perhaps average in condition – neither especially good nor bad. Then the two treatments can be compared side-by-side, without the variable of: soil type, aspect etc.

Another option could be to compare different stock densities in one half of the field to the other. For instance: standard rate vs double rate. Then compare: residuals, level of trampling, groundcover and potentially Brix or some soil health tests also. While of course being aware of body condition, fill and overall animal health.
Utilising grazing planning tools, like holistic planned grazing would assist this process. But basically it would mean that on each rotation around the farm when the animals arrived to the test field, the same management would be applied.

At the end of year soil health assessments should indicate success of the trialled technique.

 

Conclusion

This article is a short expose on the process you might go through to assess underlying (soil health) issues and what steps you might take to address or remedy these issues.

There is always more than one way to skin a cat, and I would be wary of presenting any of this information as gospel. Simply that it starts with what can be observed directly, what that tells us about the health of the soil, how we can measure this, and implementing management changes to address the underlying causes of these issues.

This is particularly pertinent during this drought period as everyone is “running out of grass” (in a year when winter rains were, if anything excessive).

The basic thesis is that a healthy soil with soak up all the rain the winter throws at it, let much of that pass through, slowly — thus eliminating flood pulses — but holding the remainder (interstitially) where it can be accessed by crops and pasture plants for growth into hot dry spells (when they can grow best), giving longer growth with less headaches.

Healthy soils irrigate crops in drought — by capturing & storing rainwater.

If you have any thoughts or questions, get in touch: info@nielscorfield.com

Know your Soils #3: Monitor the impact of water run-off

Know your Soils #3: Monitor the impact of water run-off 570 376 Soilmentor

Welcome to the third instalment of our new 12 part Know your Soils series sharing practical tips for monitoring the soil health on your land.  Keep an eye out for our bitesize videos and fact sheets on simple tests you can do yourself on farm.

“If you can’t measure it, you can’t improve it.


How much topsoil and nutrients do you lose with rain water run-off?

A video from the ‘Learning from the Land’ series created by Catchment Sensitive Farming & Innovation for Agriculture

This is a great test you can do at home to understand how much rain water is running off your soils and whether it’s eroding precious topsoil and nutrients. Matthew Shepherd, Soil Biodiversity Specialist for Natural England, uses the humble tetra pack to show how soil samples from bare soil, arable and permanent pasture fields differ in their water holding capacity.

Healthy soil which has a good crumb structure or ‘aggregation’ throughout the topsoil and subsoil is able to store a large amount of water. It can be stored in all the nooks and crannies, as well as percolate around the soil ‘crumbs’ or particles deep into the soil. This gives plants access to water during drier weather in the spring and summer, making them more resistant to drought.

If the soil is poorly aggregated there are no nooks and crannies for the water to be stored in or percolate down through to the lower layers of soil. Instead it will move laterally through the topsoil taking nutrients and earth with it, far away from the farm and into water courses, literally leaking money and resources away.

There are various farm management practises for improving soil health and ‘aggregation’. Mob grazing is very effective in a mixed farming system, as it adds organic matter to the soil which feeds soil organisms that create aggregation, and it allows for rapid regrowth of grasses increasing their photosynthesis power and thus soil carbon. Find out more information about making your soil ‘rain-ready’.

How about trying this test out with other local farmers growing different crops and grass leys so you have a wide variety of different soil samples? You can raid your recycling bins together for as many empty tetra pack cartons as possible!

Equipment

  • Tetrapack carton — re-use an orange juice or milk carton
  • Soil sample block
  • Collection jars
  • Bucket
  • Watering can
  • Nitrate testing strips

Regular soil testing is helpful to understand how your soil aggregation changes when a new management practise is put in place to improve it. You could also try monitoring topsoil depth, water infiltration rate, and visual analysis of soil structure in the autumn and spring.


See our free online soils guide for soil tests you can do at home and find out how our app Soilmentor helps you record & learn how your soil is changing.

Soil testing: The experience is as valuable as the results

Soil testing: The experience is as valuable as the results 5184 3456 Soilmentor

This blog post was written by Annie Landless, after an eye opening afternoon of soil testing with Charles, her Dad.

My Dad and I had been talking about soil testing at home on our 375 acre farm since January, but it took until May to get outside and do the tests. While I live in London full time, I visit the family farm in North Oxfordshire regularly where we have 100 South Devon cross beef cattle, an arable rotations of wheat, oilseed rape, barley, oats & grass and 20 acres of solar panels.. I help out with marketing and community at Soilmentor so trying out recording soil test results with the app on my home turf is a top priority.

We had much discussion about which fields to test; this turned out to be a complex decision since the field boundaries have evolved considerably for one reason or another. Thames water have been working on a pipeline through three fields, taking productive land out of play and changing the field layout. We wanted a good spread of different fields being used for different purposes, for different numbers of years. We had this conversation back in February, but for the period I was at home, the ground was frozen solid, and digging out soil samples wasn’t an option.

The weeks turned by, and I was back at the farm again in late March – it rained every day for a week and the ground was utterly waterlogged, so we delayed our field trip together once again.

Fast forward to mid-May, and this time, I was determined we would make the tests happen. We agreed Saturday would be the day and I gathered the equipment: bags, a tray, spade etc. As I stepped out of the door in the afternoon, the heavens opened. It was decided a drive round in the Landy to look at the cows and the environmental strips was preferable to soil testing in the rain. Now, I know the weather seems a good excuse not to, but that doesn’t often stop a farmer! I couldn’t help but sense a hesitancy in the air.

The next day, thankfully, the weather was on our side. Dad came in for lunch and we were prepped and ready to go. Dad was rather angling for a sleepy afternoon reading the newspaper and wondering if it was really preferable for him to dig holes and look at soil. He did say normally he would pay someone else to do soil analysis, but my mum persuaded him it would be good ‘father-daughter’ bonding. It was a good enough motivation in the end, luckily!

We clambered into the Landy, phone complete with Soilmentor app in one hand, soil health kit in the other, dogs in back and front, and headed to our first destination: the Oak Tree Field. We picked a spot on the first section of the field and hopped out. Dad wanted to dig the holes, despite being due for a hip replacement the following week! It was a bit tough getting the spade in, but he managed. After digging out the top depth of the soil profile he was keen to get the rest, to exactly a spades depth.

Before I could pull out the VESS scorecard and phone he was already up close with the soil sample, running it between his fingers, exclaiming how beautiful the soil is and that he believed we had been kind to it over the years. The field is a grass ley established in 2017, and despite compaction in the top layers, it looked good, and there were no weeds at all. They say ‘the best fertiliser is a farmers boot’, which Dad quoted to me as he announced this is what farmers should be doing, looking at their soils, seeing what is going on for themselves.

Spurred on by the success of the first test, Dad wanted to do another, and another, and another. We continue on to do two more on the Oak Tree Field, each time examining the soil up close, both fascinated by the aggregation, decomposing farmyard manure and earthworms wiggling around in our soil. Once you’ve done the first field, it motivates you to compare the results with another field of a different use, and it very much helps to get your eye in. We also tested a field of wheat after rape and two permanent pasture fields, one which has been grass since the 1970s and the other since time immemorial.

The results we got were interesting; for example there were clear differences between the soil structure of permanent pasture and arable fields. However what I did find was, at first Dad was very much on the optimistic side when scoring our samples, particularly for the VESS test. It was only after 3-4 tests on different fields that I started to understand what was an appropriate score. Dad always wanted to rate it number 1 of course, so I had to be a harsher critic! It was a learning curve for both of us.

Luckily you can go back and edit results on the Soilmentor app, so I was able to update our first scores to be more realistic. We also took photos of the soil samples we used for each test with the app, and found it very helpful to look at them on the computer when we got home, to compare different soil samples in order to reassess scoring.  My advice would be, if scoring your samples feels a bit confusing at first, it gets easier with every test. Once you’ve looked at a few different soil samples you will start to understand better.

By the end of our testing session, Dad was saying he could easily go out and do them himself, and was getting quite excited at the prospect. He was surprised at how much he had enjoyed the experience and thanked me for the encouragement. We beetled home to do slake tests, and I left him with bags of earth and bowls of water as I prepared to head back to London.  We both found the tests were simple and easy and got the hang of using the app quickly. Dad has it downloaded on his iPad as it’s easier to see! It was a great pleasure to be able to work alongside him, both learning and enjoying the process, taking the time to see the earth for ourselves.

It can take some galvanisation to get out there and do the tests, but really at a basic level you only need to do them once or twice a year, in Autumn and/ or Spring. There is a lot of value to be found in spending an afternoon sitting amongst the grasses and crops, digging out samples, and looking closely at the life within them. The experience is just as important as the results.

 


Try soil testing on your farm using our free online soils guide and find out how our app Soilmentor helps you record & learn how your soil is changing.

Know your Soils #2: Earthworm Quiz

Know your Soils #2: Earthworm Quiz 590 442 Soilmentor

Welcome to the second instalment of our new 12 part Know your Soils series sharing practical tips for monitoring the soil health on your land.  Keep an eye out for our bitesize videos and fact sheets on simple tests you can do yourself on farm.

“If you can’t measure it, you can’t improve it.” 


Take the earthworm quiz

A quiz created by Jackie Stroud, soil scientist at Rothamsted Research, also known as ‘The Worm Lady’!

Did you know there are three different types of earthworms at work in your soil? Each type lives in a specific layer and performs a unique function which contributes to the soil’s health.

It’s simple to monitor the activity of earthworms, all you need to do is dig a 20cm deep hole in the ground and count the different earthworms you find in each layer. Counting the number of worms is a good indicator of life in the soil. If you go one step further and identify what type of worm it is, then this can tell you much more about what the worms are working on and help uncover any necessary changes you need to make in your soil management.

Really you want to have all three types of worms working in harmony. The living litter feeders break down organic matter on the surface of the soil, the top-soil worms work on soil aggregation and nutrient mobilisation, and then the deep-burrowers keep water flowing from the soil surface to deep pools below, as well as increasing aeration and root development.

However, you need to make sure you can identify which worms are which before you head out to the field! Jackie has created a fun and fantastic quiz to help you learn about and test yourself on different worm types.

It only takes a few minutes to complete and you’ll learn everything you need to know about earthworms from the surface dwellers to the deep burrowers.

Take the earthworm quiz

You can also use this AHDB info sheet that Jackie put together as a resource for learning about the types of worms and how to effectively count earthworms.

Interested in expanding your wormy knowledge? Get involved with Jackie’s #60minworms project, an on-farm worm survey, the results of which contribute to a UK wide data set on worm activity so we can understand soil health better together. The next survey is taking place from 15th September – 30th October.

 


See our free online soils guide for soil tests you can do at home and find out how our app Soilmentor helps you record & learn how your soil is changing.

Know your Soils #1: Meet the bugs!

Know your Soils #1: Meet the bugs! 1200 659 Soilmentor

In our new 12 part Know your Soils series we will share practical tips for monitoring the soil health on your land.  Keep an eye out for our bitesize videos and fact sheets on simple tests you can do yourself on farm.

“If you can’t measure it, you can’t improve it.” 


Get to know the bugs in your soil!

A video from the ‘Learning from the Land’ series created by Catchment Sensitive Farming & Innovation for Agriculture

In this short video, we hear from Matthew Shepherd, Soil Biodiversity Specialist for Natural England, about a test you can do to understand the activity of creatures in the ground and how they indicate and impact the properties of your soil.

List of equipment with links is below!

For those of you keen to try this test it is possible to do at home with the right equipment. This test needs a microscope which we realise is not your average piece of kitchen equipment 🙂 so why not club together with a group of local farmers to share equipment and knowledge? We have definitely found discussing soil tests with other farmers and soil advisors can be super helpful! You can also ask question about the test in the Soil Biodiversity UK group.

For this test you will need:

  • Sieve
  • Bucket of soil
  • White tray
  • Insect collection pooter or make your own with two airtight plastic pots (recycle small food packaging pots), rubber tubing bought from an aquarium /pet shop (two different colours so you know which to suck!), and a bit of mesh/ muslin to go over the end of the sucking tube in the pot to stop the bugs going up and into your mouth (try using a bit of weave from inside a DIY mask).
  • Petri dish with lid
  • Microscope (here is equipment and microscope recommendations from Dr Elaine Ingham) – stereo microscopes are best as you can see a 3D image which isn’t inverted. x20 magnification is good for viewing and identifying soil bugs.
  • Flexible LED light

 


See our free online soils guide for soil tests you can do at home and find out how our app Soilmentor helps you record & learn how your soil is changing.

Soil testing: How to measure infiltration rate effectively

Soil testing: How to measure infiltration rate effectively 700 445 Soilmentor

When the rains come, have your tubes at the ready, because a day or two after is the perfect time to test your infiltration rate. Measuring the infiltration rate in Winter or early Spring can be challenging because the ground is saturated with seasonal rainfall, so it can take quite a long time! The main thing to consider when doing this measurement is you want to take the reading at about the same time/and in approx the same conditions each year to be able to compare year on year and see how it’s changing. Soilmentor makes it really easy to record your infiltration rate results alongside the date they were taken, and visually monitor your progress over time with personalised trend charts. 

Awareness of how well water infiltrates down into your soil is at the core of knowing your soil health and structure. A good infiltration rate indicates that the top soil has a ‘crumb structure’ and it is well aggregated. Essentially this means that each clump of soil is stuck together with glues and slimes from soil organisms and they are not broken down by water. Therefore the clumps (or aggregates) retain their structure when the water flows around them, also allowing water to quickly flow down into the soil depths. At the same time the clumps provide lots of nooks and crannies for droplets of the water to be stored in. So the water percolates easily, and some of it is stored along the way. This is what we want!

The infiltration rate is the speed at which water enters the soil, and is measured by monitoring the time it takes for a set amount of water to ‘infiltrate’ into the ground. Read the details in our infiltration rate guide here. Understanding how land works with water is highly beneficial for a farmer or any type of grower. It gives an idea of how much rainfall is soaking deep into the ground and how much could be running off and taking the soil with it. Soil washing off the land is like throwing money out of the window, our prime resource going down the drain. The image below of the UK clearly shows the seas brown with soil runoff after a heavy period of rain. Leaking away resources like this does not contribute to a profitable farming plan or an ecological farming system.

The extent of soil erosion in the UK is visible from space. Credit: NEODAAS/University of Dundee

To get a good sample of infiltration rate, you need to measure it at the same time each year, for each field. Do at least two tests per field, maybe one in the ‘best part’ and one in the ‘worst part’. Compare rates between your different fields. Why is the infiltration rate much quicker in one field than the next? Do you manage things differently in one field than the other? Where your infiltration rate is slower, could you look to the Soil Health Principles (cover soil, minimise disturbance, diversity in rotation or plantings, minimal chemical usage, living root in the ground as often as possible) to guide you in a new direction for your management strategy?

The equipment for this test is key to getting a reliable result, finding the right tube is essential! If it’s too narrow it will compact the soil inside it as you drive it into the ground and heavily impact your result (unfortunately we have found that baked bean tins don’t work). When the soil is compacted the infiltration rate will be a lot slower, as it’s harder for water to enter the ground. This will not give you a true reading for your infiltration rate. To avoid this happening we recommend finding some 150 mm diameter (6 inch) tubing or pipe; a flue pipe can work quite well. Cut it to about 15cm depth and make one of the circular edges sharp, so it’s easily pushed into the ground. Read more here for the full instructions.

There are impressive stats to show that even when we think the ground is saturated, there could be even more capacity for the ground to hold water. Healthy soil can hold up to twenty times its own weight in water and increasing soil organic matter by 1% increases the soil’s water holding capacity by 3.7%. So it’s worthwhile putting some elbow grease into improving your soil crumb structure and soil organic matter, because in times of heavy rain you’ll reduce flooding and soil erosion and in times of drought there will be more water available to your thirsty crops. Keeping an eye on your infiltration rate helps to understand how well you’re doing at this. Good luck!

Head over to our soil testing page for more info on how to measure your infiltration rate. And if you want to easily record your infiltration rates and other soil tests as you go then our app is your perfect helping hand you can buy Soilmentor here or get in touch with us for more information!