Know Your Soils #4: How to capture carbon in your soilhttps://soils.vidacycle.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/Screen-Shot-2018-08-21-at-12.02.42.png659353SoilmentorSoilmentor//soils.vidacycle.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/12/vidacycle_sml-2.png
Welcome to the fourth instalment of our Know your Soils series sharing practical tips for monitoring the soil health on your land. Keep an eye out for our bitesize videos and fact sheets on simple tests you can do yourself on farm.
“If you can’t measure it, you can’t improve it.”
“If you want to capture carbon, you have to think like carbon!”
A special short episode of Farmerama Radio, a podcast sharing the voices of smaller scale farmers
Charles Schembre is a Soil Conservationist at the Napa County Resource Conservation District, working primarily in Vineyard Agriculture. He has received grant funding to set up his carbon farm plan project from California’s Healthy Soils Program, a scheme to support farmers with increasing soil health, sequestering carbon and improving water retention.
Sequestering or increasing soil organic carbon is the process of plants absorbing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, and transforming it into carbon in the soil through photosynthesis. This is beneficial for reducing greenhouse gases, in addition to increasing soil fertility.
Charles is working with farms and vineyards to create holistic ‘Carbon Farm Plans’, which assist them to increase their agricultural resilience and productivity, and mitigate the impact of our rapidly changing climate with sustainable farm management practises.
In this short episode of Farmerama, he explains how ‘Carbon Farming’ works, what a carbon farm plan is and how you can monitor this on your farm:
You can see an example carbon farm plan from the USDA Napa County vineyard here.
Carbon sequestration is a win-win, right?
Yes, however, making a plan and monitoring it’s success is the challenge. The idea for the plan is to put all potential options in, and then chip away to find what’s realistic. In terms of soil health there are several different tactics he suggests you can use to increase carbon in your soil and monitor how they are working:
No-till: This is the practise of not ploughing, leaving soil undisturbed, protecting against soil erosion and allowing microbes, fungi and worms to do their great work building soil health. This is one of the easiest practises to implement as it doesn’t involve much financial commitment, so a lot of the farms using carbon farm plans try it first.
Compost: Adding compost to the soil builds up it’s soil organic matter content. The benefits of this practise are much longer term. Charles recommends adding large compost applications to soil perhaps every 5 or even 10 years.
Ground cover: The more ground is covered in plants, the better. If you want to capture carbon, you need leafy green plants, absorbing CO2 from the atmosphere and putting it into the ground. So those, ‘untidy areas’ of the farm, rife with riotous plants and weeds, might actually be doing your soil a favour. Think twice about topping them next time!
To understand how much carbon sequestration you are achieving Charles advises you start monitoring these three soil health indicators (identified by Soil Health Institute):
Wet aggregate stability (Slake test): this is the soil’s ability to withstand disintegration from water erosion. You can do the slake test at home! (our soil health expert Jenni Dungait will tell us more about this later in the series)
Bulk Density: this is the unit of dry soil & air per unit of bulk volume. It changes depending on different land management practises. The test is best done in a lab, and involves drying a soil sample in an oven at 105 degrees for 18-24 hours.
Soil Organic Carbon: this is a part of soil organic matter which is traditionally measured with the Loss-on-ignition test (also best done in a lab). However recent research by Soil Health Expert Jenni Dungait has shown that the wet aggregate stability test (or slake test) is a proxy for Soil Organic Carbon when following this protocol.
Making your soil rain-ready : Skywatchers it’s time to look downhttps://soils.vidacycle.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/1_eXuvVGAcKZ7l3tAulCL8qw.jpeg800533SoilmentorSoilmentor//soils.vidacycle.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/12/vidacycle_sml-2.png
This is a guest post by Niels Corfield, soil health, agroforestry and whole farm planning advisor, researcher and advocate.
For graziers and farmers
It’s been a “funny old year” from the wet, water-logged winter-spring to the now, dry spring-summer.
Since we’re in a prolonged dry spell people are watching the sky and “praying” for rain (or at least hoping), I wanted to share some relevant gleanings from visual assessments of soil structure and how they pertain to soil moisture, in these most “drying times”.
To conclude the piece I will attempt to show how these observations could be brought-to-bear on management decisions now, and in the future. With a view to ensuring your soils are “ready for the rain”.
Below are some images of soils under different management. When looking at these images I want you to ask yourself: What can we see here? What is the appearance (the structure of the soil) telling us?
The first and perhaps most important point to make, is, to make a clear distinction between observations and conclusions (or to cited causes). Not that we shouldn’t draw conclusions, simply that there may be multiple reasons for an observed phenomena.
But the first step to understanding a given situation is observation.
Above is an image of a soil under permanent pasture in mid winter.
Q: What do we see in this picture, in terms of the visual appearance of the soil structure?
A: a tale of two (very distinct) layers
So, what, might we say, is the most important difference in the state of these two layers?
1. the upper layer appears darker — it is wet (or well hydrated), and;
2. the lower layer has a lighter appearance — is dry.
If we look a little more closely are there any other aspects of the appearance we can identify?
Well, structure is one of the macro features of soil we can look-to to judge it’s condition and it’s state of “health”.
The two broad categories of soil structure are: aggregated and consolidated.
Consolidated soil is the product of physical bonding, typically, having a uniform and homogenous structure, with angular or blocky sections. An aggregated soil is very different, it’s structure is a result of a biological activity — the secretion of sticky substances — that glue the separate soil particles (sand, silt or clay) into little globs, that have a rounded appearance (they look like mini worm castings). See below for an example of an aggregated soil.
A Closer Look
By getting right-in there we should be able to spot relevant, features or characteristics, not otherwise visible. Let’s look at these two layers separately, and see how they can be characterised in terms of their structure.
The upper layer (or turf layer as we might call it) has a more aggregated structure, we can see this because the particles sizes vary-, they are generally small, have a “crumb”-like structure, and are held apart from one another, in a disordered kind of arrangement. Overall, the structure is: non-uniform, irregular and generally open in nature (this can be seen by the large number of small shadows visible in the image).
This is also where the majority of the roots are concentrated. They are densely distributed and are mostly coated with soil, with some showing signs of “rhizosheaths”.
These are all signs of biological activity (or the bi-products of microbial activity).
The section of soil below the turf layer has a quite different appearance. Rather than shadows everywhere from all the nooks and crannies created by the many discrete soil particles, what can be seen is a fairly solid mass, with distinct faces, broken into large angular sections. Between- and within these sections there are cracks, clearly visible.
Generally, where it does break breakdown into smaller fragments, these are still angular and blocky in nature, rather than rounded.
There are roots present throughout this layer, however they are fairly widely distributed and mostly white in colour — indicating they are “clean” and free of soil. Not a good sign as it means the roots aren’t building lots of aggregates.
These visual cues are all indicative of a physical structure, one where the soil particles are bonded in crystal lattice: highly ordered, tightly packed and densely arranged, having a low porosity.
We can see clear a distinction between these two different soil strata or layers. But what is the significance of these observations?
The land has had ample rain so why isn’t the whole of the soil profile hydrated.
If it were water loss due to evaporation (somewhat unlikely in winter) surely it would be the upper layer that would be dry, either through direct losses or through transpiration from the majority of the roots.
If it were lack of precipitation we should see a proportion of the lower lever showing signs of hydration, yet there is a distinct boundary, exactly where the soil structure changes.
What seems most likely here is that the rain that has fallen on to this soil has been unable to percolate into these lower depths, basically ending up moving laterally, and leaving the land (taking some goodness with it).
Why is this significant? Why should we care?
Well we can can say, that, amongst other things, soil is a water store (a reservoir) that holds water from rains (or snow melt) from which plants can draw-on in dry periods.
Generally, we can say that better aggregation allows more water to enter the soil profile and holds more of that for later in the year. This is shown, in this example, because the upper layer of this soil is well hydrated, and is also well aggregated. As opposed to the bottom which is dry, and has a consolidated structure. We can broadly say that this layer and below will hold (and therefore offer) little water to plants come the growing season.
In a drought this maybe the difference of several weeks of additional growth.
We can also broadly say that a better hydrated soil will have more active microbial populations, and thus more microbial activity, meaning more nutrient release, and therefore: healthier-, more nutritious grass plants. Which means healthier-, better nourished animals, with better weight-gain, higher conception rates and improved meat quality.
So how are we to respond to these observations? What practices or measures can we put in place to address these issues? What might our objectives be, based on what we can see? Where would we want to end up, over what period?
We can say that these observations are generally associated with poor pasture condition. Either through historic management practices or through some issue associated with cultivation, back in the day.
There is no one right response. Every farm is different and you have to work with the constraints you have. However, whatever response you do try, it is important to monitor as you go so you can see if it’s working.
That said, it’s important to note that the image referred to here, is just one sample and as such may not be representative of the whole field.
To get a more accurate picture of the soil condition in a field as a whole, a number of samples should be taken. Or an attempt should be made to return to the same spot each time samples are taken.
Either way, the important point is that samples are representative.
This soil sample has been selected for this piece because it illustrates a point clearly.
With this in mind, we can use the baseline we have from the samples we take, record a measure of topsoil depth typically the upper layer, with more aggregated structure (potentially the turf layer) and look to increase that depth year-on-year. Perhaps using a yearly, or twice-yearly assessment – ideally taken from the same- or close to the same location in that field. The VESS test will also be appropriate for referencing progress/improvements.
Another, more immediate method for measuring success would be forage volume, either with a plate meter or a sward stick. With increasing totals and faster growth rates being valued.
Finally, perhaps the most direct method for assessing water penetration into soils, is the water infiltration rate test. Which is kind of a no-brainer, though that said, it’s really a measure of aggregation — since as aggregation improves, so does infiltration. It couldn’t be more appropriate for this drought July 2018.
Soil Health Principles
Once you’ve decided how you will measure success, the next step is to identify interventions/management practices that can help you achieve your objectives.
These may well be novel practices or represent a change in management, as such there’s some consideration to be made when selecting a specific option. So, what’s useful is to have a criteria against which to make your selection.
One tool for making selections (or at least shortlisting) is the soil health principles (see below). Basically, practices that match more of the soil health principles should be favoured (where practical).
Living Root — for long as possible, as often as possible
Covered Soil — with residues or living plants (leaves)
Minimise Disturbance — tillage/cultivation
Diversity — in your rotations or mixes
Feed Soils — organisms need energy (carbon) to live and be active
Incorporate Animals — ideally using adaptive/planned grazing techniques
Minimise Use of Chemicals/Synthetics — undoes your good work above
In almost all cases, if improving soil health is your aim, then the main objective is to increase microbial activity, either by feeding the organisms directly or by inducing the grass plants to grow larger and more rapidly (which has the knock-on effect of feeding soil biology also, through exudates).
In general we’re looking to increase residues and residuals, increase trampling and shifting to a lower (or ultra-low) utilisation rate — potentially 10–20%, with 30% being an upper range. Frequent moves and high stock density will facilitate these goals.
Some techniques and frameworks for improving soil health in pasture.
All these practices are routes to increased soil aggregation. And as such their success can be evidenced by this.
Holistic Planned Grazing (HPG)
A tool to deal with the complexity and variables associated with managing grazing systems, and achieve higher goals, like high animal performance, improved pasture growth and better soil.
As they say “proper planning and preparation, prevents….” In this case, the planning means you are generally better prepared for unforeseen circumstances. So when a drought hits- or an extended wet period you should be better able to react and still achieve those goals.
HMG Grazing Charts are downloadable here. Though you may want some support with getting started.
Otherwise there’s a new app PastureMap which takes much of the work out of the process, especially the recording, and on the fly monitoring. As well as this, the support staff are all planned grazers, so they can provide help with the app and the grazing planning.
Grazing technique that can help to get the most out of your pastures in any given year, especially in drought and when grazing “into the shoulders”. Extend the season and improve the bottom line. Especially effective when applied in a holistic planned grazing framework.
High stock densities (and frequent moves) reduces over utilisation of grasses through selective grazing and ensures even
Works best with smaller animals, with larger rumen to frame size ratio — animals bred to perform well on “low quality”, all-grass diets (450–600kg liveweight).
After a grazing event, close attention should be paid to: trampling, litter/bare soil and residuals, especially when beginning in this practice. Percentage bare soil can be recorded using a quadrat, explained here.
In drought, trampled residues keep soil moist, and protect open areas in sward from heat, and loss of structure, potentially facilitating germination of shed seed. Low utilisation rates facilitate rapid regrowth of grass plants by leaving plenty of “solar panels” for photosynthesis.
The pics above show some of the results of high stock density grazing. Evidence of trampling and high residuals is clear. With particular interest being from the moisture retained on the soil surface below litter.
Not visible in this image the fact that many areas of the pasture have been heavily utilised (perhaps 60% or more) and some areas are untouched (as well as being untrampled).
Residuals and trampling could be be increased, while at the same time reducing over utilisation of favoured grasses, by increasing the stock density further, say moving twice per day. In these most drying of times. This should have the effect of improving the speed of regrowth (keeping the pasture growing in this dry weather) while improving the sward composition (by reducing selective grazing of favoured plants).
This technique is typically carried-out in the dormant season, and can be combined with out-wintering.
It’s a good way to keep the manure and urine going on to the field (with reduced need for mucking-out or housing) while adding residues to the field -when forage is insufficient.
Drought situations also present similar conditions. In this case, where grass is running low (or when you want to just leave more residuals) you can put out stored feed. This will have the effect of trampling the residual hay into the soil, which feeds soil organisms and helps to cover soil, in patchy pastures.
Care should be taken to ration the bales offered, to roll out bales (ensuring an even covering — preventing clumpy dense patches that may be slow to breakdown) and to move animals across fodders by: mob grazing, rotational grazing (higher stock densities mean higher residuals).
These are just two possible techniques that have a proven track record in improving soil health, while supporting high numbers of stock. Increasing sward diversity, either with perennial pasture species or annual forages is another route. See examples presented below:
All these techniques can help to improve soil health and with it pasture health, which in drought translates to longer growth into the dry period and in mature systems, continued growth through the “dry season”.
While also facilitating longer out-wintering through better soil structure, that resists poaching, and providing additional available forage in the dormant season.
Convince Yourself: On-Farm Trials
These techniques are all novel, have a degree of nuance to them and of course can be applied alongside existing practice or together.
So, when implementing them there’s a real risk of disruption to the existing operation, and a need to master- or at least road-test these techniques.
For this reason, a period of experimentation is highly indicated.
The most appropriate vehicle for testing novel techniques is on-farm trials.
This could take the form of a “split field” trial – where one half of one field is managed using a new technique and the other half is managed as normal. This is monitored, using a set of tests that can be carried-out across both areas and the results compared. See below for examples.
Some knowledge of variability in soil types is useful. Wherever possible we’re trying to remove variables. So if one part of a field is a different soil type, attempt to split the field through or across that section. So as to have both soil types represented in both treatments.
Side-by-side experiments give the most immediate feedback.
This might start with a single field, perhaps one that is close to the yard – for easy access and monitoring, one that is perhaps average in condition – neither especially good nor bad. Then the two treatments can be compared side-by-side, without the variable of: soil type, aspect etc.
Another option could be to compare different stock densities in one half of the field to the other. For instance: standard rate vs double rate. Then compare: residuals, level of trampling, groundcover and potentially Brix or some soil health tests also. While of course being aware of body condition, fill and overall animal health.
Utilising grazing planning tools, like holistic planned grazing would assist this process. But basically it would mean that on each rotation around the farm when the animals arrived to the test field, the same management would be applied.
At the end of year soil health assessments should indicate success of the trialled technique.
This article is a short expose on the process you might go through to assess underlying (soil health) issues and what steps you might take to address or remedy these issues.
There is always more than one way to skin a cat, and I would be wary of presenting any of this information as gospel. Simply that it starts with what can be observed directly, what that tells us about the health of the soil, how we can measure this, and implementing management changes to address the underlying causes of these issues.
This is particularly pertinent during this drought period as everyone is “running out of grass” (in a year when winter rains were, if anything excessive).
The basic thesis is that a healthy soil with soak up all the rain the winter throws at it, let much of that pass through, slowly — thus eliminating flood pulses — but holding the remainder (interstitially) where it can be accessed by crops and pasture plants for growth into hot dry spells (when they can grow best), giving longer growth with less headaches.
Healthy soils irrigate crops in drought — by capturing & storing rainwater.
Know your Soils #3: Monitor the impact of water run-offhttps://soils.vidacycle.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/0032_talajtan.bmp570376SoilmentorSoilmentor//soils.vidacycle.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/12/vidacycle_sml-2.png
Welcome to the third instalment of our new 12 part Know your Soils series sharing practical tips for monitoring the soil health on your land. Keep an eye out for our bitesize videos and fact sheets on simple tests you can do yourself on farm.
“If you can’t measure it, you can’t improve it.”
How much topsoil and nutrients do you lose with rain water run-off?
This is a great test you can do at home to understand how much rain water is running off your soils and whether it’s eroding precious topsoil and nutrients. Matthew Shepherd, Soil Biodiversity Specialist for Natural England, uses the humble tetra pack to show how soil samples from bare soil, arable and permanent pasture fields differ in their water holding capacity.
Healthy soil which has a good crumb structure or ‘aggregation’ throughout the topsoil and subsoil is able to store a large amount of water. It can be stored in all the nooks and crannies, as well as percolate around the soil ‘crumbs’ or particles deep into the soil. This gives plants access to water during drier weather in the spring and summer, making them more resistant to drought.
If the soil is poorly aggregated there are no nooks and crannies for the water to be stored in or percolate down through to the lower layers of soil. Instead it will move laterally through the topsoil taking nutrients and earth with it, far away from the farm and into water courses, literally leaking money and resources away.
There are various farm management practises for improving soil health and ‘aggregation’. Mob grazing is very effective in a mixed farming system, as it adds organic matter to the soil which feeds soil organisms that create aggregation, and it allows for rapid regrowth of grasses increasing their photosynthesis power and thus soil carbon. Find out more information about making your soil ‘rain-ready’.
How about trying this test out with other local farmers growing different crops and grass leys so you have a wide variety of different soil samples? You can raid your recycling bins together for as many empty tetra pack cartons as possible!
Tetrapack carton — re-use an orange juice or milk carton
Intro to Jennifer Dungait: Soil Health Experthttps://soils.vidacycle.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/JenniDungaitSoilHealthExpertBio.png451193SoilmentorSoilmentor//soils.vidacycle.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/12/vidacycle_sml-2.png
We are honoured to have Professor Jenni Dungait as a soils advisor and ambassador for Soilmentor. Jenni is a leading soil scientist, Editor in Chief for the European Journal of Soil Science and also offers brilliant insights into how soil works in the field through her consultancy Soil Health Expert. Find out more at www.soilhealthexpert.com
Our planet may be the only place in the universe where the conditions are right for soil to form. We rely on this miracle substance to grow our food, and it doesn’t usually let us down. So, most people, even some farmers, rarely think about the soil as more than ‘dirt’. But, relentless pressure over several decades to produce more and more food, with little regard for the effect of increasingly intensive agricultural production on soil, has taken its toll on this irreplaceable resource.
There is now real worry that the degradation of agricultural soils, combined with the changing climate and competition for agricultural land for other uses, will affect our ability to grow enough nutritious food in the future. Already, rarely a week goes by without reports in the media about food shortages caused by unpredictable extreme weather events and disease that are seriously affecting human well-being somewhere in the world.
Over the last couple of decades, I have devoted my life to discovering the science behind the remarkable ability of soils to keep on helping farmers to grow food, and what can be done when they don’t.
As a Professor of Soil Biogeochemistry working in world-renowned agricultural research institutes and universities, I have been lucky enough to travel across the world to talk to farmers about their soils and the problems that they are facing in the hope that scientific solutions can be developed.
There are some very common themes amongst concerns expressed by farmers that I have recognised across all continents.
The weather is becoming more unpredictable, with droughts and flooding becoming more common.
Yields are stagnant or declining despite using the latest crops, technology and agrochemicals which are all becoming more expensive.
Breaking soil compaction is a major expense in time and money.
Top soil losses in run off are causing local pollution problems.
Weeds and disease are increasingly difficult to deal with.
Falling farm incomes are forcing farmers to sell land for non-food production and construction.
Farmers are expected to act as environmental stewards as well as producing food which seem to be opposing demands.
The innovative farmers who are successfully adapting to change and meeting these problems head on are those working in partnership with the life in our soils. These farmers say that getting the organisms in the soil to work with you is a win:win strategy that has reduced their workload and their expenditure on pesticides, fertilisers, irrigation, fuel and livestock medicines, whilst ensuring sustained yields and enabling them to meet their commitments to protect the environment. They recognise that Soil Health is the beating heart at the centre of their farming life.
Optimising Soil Health by managing the physics, chemistry and biology of agricultural soils is now recognised as a major part of the strategy for farmers to improve and sustain their businesses during the current period of intense change and to futureproof their livelihoods against the challenges to come.
What are the signs that soil is healthy? In recent years, I have been working with farmers’ groups in the UK and USA to find out which are the best and most reliable tests for Soil Health that can be easily used by farmers, but are also supported by the latest scientific evidence.
I am very pleased to be working as an independent Soil Health Expert with Vidacycle to develop the Soilmentor app using my knowledge. Watch out for a series of blogs from me on the Vidacycle website in the coming months, starting with ‘Soil Health – what’s it all about?’ as an introduction to the scientific basis for the individual soil health tests chosen for the Soilmentor app. If you have any questions you can email me at email@example.com.
Know your Soils #2: Earthworm Quizhttps://soils.vidacycle.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/07/earthworm-id-quiz.jpg590442SoilmentorSoilmentor//soils.vidacycle.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/12/vidacycle_sml-2.png
Welcome to the second instalment of our new 12 part Know your Soils series sharing practical tips for monitoring the soil health on your land. Keep an eye out for our bitesize videos and fact sheets on simple tests you can do yourself on farm.
Did you know there are three different types of earthworms at work in your soil? Each type lives in a specific layer and performs a unique function which contributes to the soil’s health.
It’s simple to monitor the activity of earthworms, all you need to do is dig a 20cm deep hole in the ground and count the different earthworms you find in each layer. Counting the number of worms is a good indicator of life in the soil. If you go one step further and identify what type of worm it is, then this can tell you much more about what the worms are working on and help uncover any necessary changes you need to make in your soil management.
Really you want to have all three types of worms working in harmony. The living litter feeders break down organic matter on the surface of the soil, the top-soil worms work on soil aggregation and nutrient mobilisation, and then the deep-burrowers keep water flowing from the soil surface to deep pools below, as well as increasing aeration and root development.
However, you need to make sure you can identify which worms are which before you head out to the field! Jackie has created a fun and fantastic quiz to help you learn about and test yourself on different worm types.
It only takes a few minutes to complete and you’ll learn everything you need to know about earthworms from the surface dwellers to the deep burrowers.
You can also use this AHDB info sheet that Jackie put together as a resource for learning about the types of worms and how to effectively count earthworms.
Interested in expanding your wormy knowledge? Get involved with Jackie’s #60minworms project, an on-farm worm survey, the results of which contribute to a UK wide data set on worm activity so we can understand soil health better together. The next survey is taking place from 15th September – 30th October.
See our free online soils guide for soil tests you can do at home and find out how our app Soilmentor helps you record & learn how your soil is changing.
Know your Soils #1: Meet the bugs!https://soils.vidacycle.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/07/Screen-Shot-2018-08-01-at-17.16.01-e1533140206804.png1200659SoilmentorSoilmentor//soils.vidacycle.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/12/vidacycle_sml-2.png
In our new 12 part Know your Soils series we will share practical tips for monitoring the soil health on your land. Keep an eye out for our bitesize videos and fact sheets on simple tests you can do yourself on farm.
In this short video, we hear from Matthew Shepherd, Soil Biodiversity Specialist for Natural England, about a test you can do to understand the activity of creatures in the ground and how they indicate and impact the properties of your soil.
List of equipment with links is below!
For those of you keen to try this test it is possible to do at home with the right equipment. This test needs a microscope which we realise is not your average piece of kitchen equipment 🙂 so why not club together with a group of local farmers to share equipment and knowledge? We have definitely found discussing soil tests with other farmers and soil advisors can be super helpful! You can also ask question about the test in the Soil Biodiversity UK group.
For this test you will need:
Bucket of soil
Insect collection pooter or make your own with two airtight plastic pots (recycle small food packaging pots), rubber tubing bought from an aquarium /pet shop (two different colours so you know which to suck!), and a bit of mesh/ muslin to go over the end of the sucking tube in the pot to stop the bugs going up and into your mouth (try using a bit of weave from inside a DIY mask).